Book DetailAuthor: Hartry Field Publisher: Oxford University Press ISBN: 0199230757 Category : Language Arts & Disciplines Languages : en Pages : 423
Saving Truth from Paradox is an ambitious investigation into paradoxes of truth and related issues, with occasional forays into notions such as vagueness, the nature of validity, and the Gödel incompleteness theorems. Hartry Field presents a new approach to the paradoxes and provides a systematic and detailed account of the main competing approaches. Part One examines Tarski's, Kripke>'s, and Lukasiewicz>'s theories of truth, and discusses validity and soundness, and vagueness. Part Two considers a wide range of attempts to resolve the paradoxes within classical logic. In Part Three Field turns to non-classical theories of truth that that restrict excluded middle. He shows that there are theories of this sort in which the conditionals obey many of the classical laws, and that all the semantic paradoxes (not just the simplest ones) can be handled consistently with the naive theory of truth. In Part Four, these theories are extended to the property-theoretic paradoxes and to various other paradoxes, and some issues about the understanding of the notion of validity are addressed. Extended paradoxes, involving the notion of determinate truth, are treated very thoroughly, and a number of different arguments that the theories lead to "revenge problems" are addressed. Finally, Part Five deals with dialetheic approaches to the paradoxes: approaches which, instead of restricting excluded middle, accept certain contradictions but alter classical logic so as to keep them confined to a relatively remote part of the language. Advocates of dialetheic theories have argued them to be better than theories that restrict excluded middle, for instance over issues related to the incompleteness theorems and in avoiding revenge problems. Field argues that dialetheists>' claims on behalf of their theories are quite unfounded, and indeed that on some of these issues all current versions of dialetheism do substantially worse than the best theories that restrict excluded middle.
Book DetailAuthor: Roi Cohen Kadosh Publisher: Oxford Library of Psychology ISBN: 0199642346 Category : Medical Languages : en Pages : 1217
How do we understand numbers? Do animals and babies have numerical abilities? Why do some people fail to grasp numbers, and how we can improve numerical understanding? Numbers are vital to so many areas of life: in science, economics, sports, education, and many aspects of everyday life from infancy onwards. Numerical cognition is a vibrant area that brings together scientists from different and diverse research areas (e.g., neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, comparative psychology, anthropology, education, and neuroscience) using different methodological approaches (e.g., behavioral studies of healthy children and adults and of patients; electrophysiology and brain imaging studies in humans; single-cell neurophysiology in non-human primates, habituation studies in human infants and animals, and computer modeling). While the study of numerical cognition had been relatively neglected for a long time, during the last decade there has been an explosion of studies and new findings. This has resulted in an enormous advance in our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of numerical cognition. In addition, there has recently been increasing interest and concern about pupils' mathematical achievement in many countries, resulting in attempts to use research to guide mathematics instruction in schools, and to develop interventions for children with mathematical difficulties. This handbook brings together the different research areas that make up the field of numerical cognition in one comprehensive and authoritative volume. The chapters provide a broad and extensive review that is written in an accessible form for scholars and students, as well as educationalists, clinicians, and policy makers. The book covers the most important aspects of research on numerical cognition from the areas of development psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and rehabilitation, learning disabilities, human and animal cognition and neuroscience, computational modeling, education and individual differences, and philosophy. Containing more than 60 chapters by leading specialists in their fields, the Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition is a state-of-the-art review of the current literature.
Book DetailAuthor: Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert Publisher: Springer ISBN: 9401793344 Category : Education Languages : en Pages : 386
This study provides a historical analysis of Freudenthal’s didactic ideas and his didactic career. It is partly biographical, but also contributes to the historiography of mathematics education and addresses closely related questions such as: what is mathematics and where does it start? Which role does mathematics play in society and what influence does it have on the prevailing views concerning its accompanying didactics?. Hans Freudenthal (1905–1990), professor in mathematics, scientist, literator, but above all mathematics-educator, was inextricably linked to the changes which took place in mathematics education and didactics during the second half of the last century. His diversity as a scientist and his inexhaustible efforts to establish the didactics of mathematics as a seriously pursued science, made Freudenthal's influence in this area considerable. He foresaw an essential, practical role for mathematics in everyone’s life, encouraging students to discover and create mathematics themselves, instead of imposing a ready-made mathematical system. The theory of mathematics education thus developed in the Netherlands would gain world fame in the following decades. Today, in the light of the discussions about mathematics education, in which the call for `genuine’ mathematics instead of the so-called 'kindergarten'-mathematics can be heard, Freudenthal's approach seems to be passé. However, the outcome of this study (which is mainly based on documents from Freudenthal’s vast personal archive) shows a more refined picture. The direct identification of 'kindergarten'-mathematics with Freudenthal’s view on mathematics education is not justified. 'Realistic mathematics' as advocated by Freudenthal includes more than just a practical introductory and should, among other things, always aim at teaching 'genuine' mathematics in the end.
Book DetailAuthor: Henry A. Glick Publisher: Handbooks in Health Economic E ISBN: 0199685029 Category : Business & Economics Languages : en Pages : 265
It is increasingly important to examine the relationship between the outcomes of a clinical trial and the costs of the medical therapy under study. This book provides a practical guide to the techniques and issues involved in conducting economic evaluation in ongoing clinical trials, supported with examples.
Book DetailAuthor: Ron Larson Publisher: Cengage Learning ISBN: 1337516856 Category : Mathematics Languages : en Pages : 1120
Larson's PRECALCULUS WITH LIMITS is known for delivering the same sound, consistently structured explanations and exercises of mathematical concepts as the market-leading PRECALCULUS, with a laser focus on preparing students for calculus. In LIMITS, the author includes a brief algebra review of core precalculus topics along with coverage of analytic geometry in three dimensions and an introduction to concepts covered in calculus. With the Fourth Edition, Larson continues to revolutionize the way students learn material by incorporating more real-world applications, ongoing review, and innovative technology. How Do You See It? exercises give students practice applying the concepts, and new Summarize features, and Checkpoint problems reinforce understanding of the skill sets to help students better prepare for tests. The companion website LarsonPrecalculus.com offers free access to multiple tools and resources to supplement students’ learning. Stepped-out solution videos with instruction are available at CalcView.com for selected exercises throughout the text. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Book DetailAuthor: A. D. Aleksandrov Publisher: Courier Corporation ISBN: 0486157873 Category : Mathematics Languages : en Pages : 1120
Major survey offers comprehensive, coherent discussions of analytic geometry, algebra, differential equations, calculus of variations, functions of a complex variable, prime numbers, linear and non-Euclidean geometry, topology, functional analysis, more. 1963 edition.